This course is an introduction to perturbative relativistic quantum field theory, for scalars, fermions, and gauge fields, in both the canonical and path integral formulations. The course begins with a review of relativistic wave equations. It introduces the Lagrangian formulation for classical fields and then discusses the canonical quantisation of free fields with spins 0, 1/2 and 1. An outline is given of perturbation theory for interacting fields and Feynman diagram methods for Quantum Electrodynamics are introduced. The course also introduces path integral methods in quantum field theory. This gives a better understanding of the quantisation of gauge theories and forms an essential tool for the understanding and development of the 'standard model' of particle physics. Topics include: Path integral formalism, Feynman rules, LSA formalism, loop diagrams and regularisation and renormalization of divergencies.

Lecturer: Dino Jaroszynski, M Wiggins, B Ersfeld, G Vieux

Institution: Strathclyde

Hours Equivalent Credit: 8

Assessment: Continuous Assessment

This course is cross-listed with the Particle Physics Theme

Course Summary

Particle accelerators are a valuable tool in probing high-energy physics (up to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN) that is vital in helping us to understand the universe. They also have a wealth of more down-to-earth societal applications such as radiotherapy machines for treating cancer. This course gives a concise introduction to the field of conventional accelerators that use radio-frequency or microwave radiation in order to accelerate charged particles (electrons, protons, ions) to high energy.

The course will cover the following topics:

(i) overview and history of the accelerators and outlook for future advances including the development of laser-driven accelerators,

(ii) accelerator applications including medical imaging, isotope production and oncology, 

(iii) RF accelerating cavities including waveguide propagation, superconducting cavities and power delivery, 

(iv) beam line diagnostics for characterising beam parameters such as charge, transverse profile, energy spread and emittance, 

(v) transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics outlining beam parameters and transport and the effect of beam quality on transport and focusing, 

(vi) non-linear beam dynamics including resonances, betatron motion and beam instabilities, 

(vii) electromagnetic radiation emitted by relativistic charged particles due to their acceleration: synchrotron and betatron,

(viii) radiation damping and application of such radiation.

Lecturers: Kenneth Wraight, Dima Maneuski and Andrew Blue

Lab heads: Stephan Eisenhardt (Edinburgh) and Richard Bates (Glasgow)

Institutions: Glasgow & Edinburgh

Hours Equivalent Credit: 16 (11 lectures, 1x2hr lab & 1x3hr Lab)

Assessment: Assignment sheets

Course Summary

The course will give a comprehensive view on the many techniques and technologies utilised in the building of particle physics detectors.
The series of 11 hours of lectures is complemented by 5 hours of residential laboratory sessions. The course is self-contained and requires no prior knowledge of the field. Students will be assessed using problem sheets.

(11 lectures, 1x2hr lab & 1x3hr Lab)

In the first series of lectures the students learn about classical detector technologies and concepts that form the basis of the modern developments.
The principles of the interaction of radiation with matter are discussed. From principles to state-of-the-art applications, the following technologies are reviewed: gaseous tracking detectors, photon detectors and calorimeters. The methods utilised for particle identification as well as concepts to trigger on rare events are presented. Finally, the students are introduced to how all these building blocks are combined into modern layouts of particle physics detectors. 
The second series of lectures focuses entirely on the physics and applications of Solid State Detectors. Their ever-increasing use in particle physics detectors is motivated; their application in the past, in the present and in the near future is reviewed. The fundamental configurations and properties of semiconductors are introduced and the process of signal formation in semiconductor detectors is discussed. The properties of the microstrip detector are examined in detail as an example of a detector type commonly used today. Radiation damage is the most limiting effect to semiconductor detectors; its effects and cures are presented. 
In the concluding lecture is on the fabrication of semiconductors. The main production techniques and their limitations are presented including lithography, additive and subtractive processes, etching, SiO2 layers and doping. Finally, the semiconductor processing facilities at the Glasgow Electrical Engineering Department are outlined. 
A two-hour session taking place in a laboratory at Edinburgh will demonstrate a state-of-the-art application of novel photon detectors on the test bench. One focus will be on the integration of control, data acquisition and logging into an integrated test system using Labview. In addition the basics of signal transmission, interfacing kit of hardware and safety when working with high voltages and radioactive sources will be covered. 
The second laboratory session held in Glasgow will last 3 hours. The session will initially explore the electrical behaviour of silicon detectors. After this the response of the detector to an IR light pulse as a function of detector bias voltage will be examined. Two different detector designs will be used to allow the student to measure the different characteristics of these devices. The laboratory will give the student the opportunity to measure the type of silicon detectors that are discussed in detail in the second part of the lecture course. 
The course is self-contained and requires no prior knowledge of the field. Students will be assessed using problem sheets.

Lecturer: Christoph Englert

Institution: Glasgow

Hours Equivalent Credit: 20

Assessment: Open book exam

Common Core Joint Master’s & PhD course

Course Summary

The course will cover the following topics: classical Lagrangian field theory, Lorentz covariance of relativistic field equations, quantisation of the Klein- Gordon, Dirac and electromagnetic fields, interacting fields, Feynman diagrams, S-matrix expansion and calculating all lowest order scattering amplitudes and cross sections in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED).

Assessment: Take-home exam (Glasgow). Closed-book exam (Edinburgh).

Lecturer: Einan Gardi

Institution: Edinburgh

Hours Equivalent Credit: 22

Assessment: Take-home exam OR project and presentation 

Joint Master’s and PhD course delivered by lectures at the University of Edinburgh.
(Non-Edinburgh students are welcome to attend the lectures in Edinburgh in person)

Course Summary

The course introduces path integral methods in quantum field theory. This modern approach (as opposed to canonical quantisation) allows the relatively simple quantisation of gauge theories and forms an essential tool for the understanding and development of the ‘standard model’ of particle physics. Topics include: Path integral formalism, Feynman rules, LSZ formalism, loop diagrams and divergencies, regularisation and renormalisation.

• Path Integrals for quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, Green’s functions and generating functionals for free scalar fields

• Interacting scalar fields, Feynman rules/diagrams, connected and one-particle-irreducible Green’s functions

• Spectral functions, in/out states, reduction formulae (LSZ formal-ism), S-matrix

• One loop Feynman diagrams for scalar theories, divergencies, dimensional regularisation, renormalisation, renormalisation group, beta- and gamma- functions, Landau poles, infra-red and ultra-violet fixed points

• Path integrals for fermions, Grassmann variables, Yukawa interactions